Literary Analysis and Composition

This list is representative of the materials provided or used in this course. Keep in mind that the actual materials used may vary, depending on the school in which you are enrolled, and whether you are taking the course as Independent Study.

For a complete list of the materials to be used in this course by your enrolled student, please visit MyInfo. All lists are subject to change at any time.

Scope & Sequence : Scope & Sequence documents describe what is covered in a course (the scope) and also the order in which topics are covered (the sequence). These documents list instructional objectives and skills to be mastered. K12 Scope & Sequence documents for each course include:

Course Overview

Throughout this course, students engage in literary analysis of short stories, poetry, drama, novels, and nonfiction. The course focuses on the interpretation of literary works and the development of oral and written communication skills in standard (formal) English. The course is organized in four programs: Literature; Composition; Grammar, Usage, and Mechanics; and Vocabulary. In Composition, students continue to sharpen their skills by writing essays in various genres. In Literature, students read "what's between the lines" to interpret literature, and they go beyond the book to discover how the culture in which a work of literature was created contributes to the themes and ideas it conveys. Students also read and study a variety of nonfiction works. This course addresses current thinking in assessment standards.

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Course Outline


This course is designed to encourage the appreciation of classic literature while strengthening critical reading skills, literature lessons expose students to canonical works and less familiar texts and offer a variety of literature to suit diverse tastes. Whether students are reading poetry, drama, autobiography, short stories, nonfiction texts, or novels, they will be guided through close readings so that they can analyze the formal features of literary texts to interpret their meanings Lessons provide rich background and information to encourage contextual exploration. In this literature program, students read "what's between the lines" and learn how to identify evidence and articulate support for their interpretations. They delve deeply into language, structure, and writer’s craft and communicate how these elements affect prevailing meanings and themes. Students go beyond the book to discover how the culture in which a work of literature was created contributes to the themes and ideas it conveys. Students will consider how the struggles, subjects, and ideas they find within these works are relevant to everyday living.

Partial list of Readings includes:

  • "A Cub Pilot" from Life on the Mississippi by Mark Twain
  • Selections from "Barrio Boy" by Ernest Galarza
  • "No Gumption" by Russell Baker
  • Selections from I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings by Maya Angelou

Poetry: Stories in Verse

  • "Lochinvar" by Sir Walter Scott
  • "The Raven" by Edgar Allan Poe
  • "Annabel Lee" by Edgar Allan Poe
  • "The Song of the Wandering Aengus" by William Butler Yeats
  • "The Wreck of the Hesperus" by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
  • "The Creation" by James Weldon Johnson

Short Stories

  • "The Glass of Milk" by Manuel Rojas
  • "To Build a Fire" by Jack London
  • "The Secret Life of Walter Mitty" by James Thurber
  • "The Piece of String" by Guy de Maupassant
  • "The Tell-Tale Heart" by Edgar Allan Poe
  • "The Lottery" by Shirley Jackson
  • "The Lady or the Tiger" by Frank Stockton

Poetry: To Everything There Is a Season

  • "Spring and Fall" by Gerard Manley Hopkins
  • "In Just" by E.E. Cummings
  • "July" by Susan H. Sweet
  • "To Autumn" by John Keats
  • "The Snowstorm" by Ralph Waldo Emerson
  • "The Snow" by Emily Dickinson

The Bible as Literature

  • Selections from Genesis: The Creation and the Fall; Cain and Abel
  • Selected Psalms
  • Parables: The Great Sheep, The Last Supper, The Prodigal Son
  • Faith, Hope, and Charity

Poetry: Voices and Viewpoints

  • "All" (Chinese poem) by Bei Dao
  • "Also All" (an answer to "All") by Shu Ting
  • "Rainy Day" by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
  • "Invictus" by W. E. Henley
  • "We Real Cool" by Gwendolyn Brooks
  • "The Negro Speaks Rivers" by Langston Hughes
  • "Mending Wall" by Robert Frost
  • Sonnets 18 and 29 by William Shakespeare

Poetry of Ideas

  • "I Dwell in Possibility" by Emily Dickinson
  • "Will There Really Be a Morning" by Emily Dickinson
  • "Ozymandias" by Percy Bysshe Shelley
  • "Do Not Go Gentle Into That Good Night" by Dylan Thomas
  • "The Charge of the Light Brigade" by Alfred Lord Tennyson
  • "The Battle of Blenheim" by Robert Southey


  • Antigone by Sophocles
  • Romeo and Juliet by William Shakespeare

Autobiography (choose 1)

  • Anne Frank: The Diary of a Young Girl
  • The Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass

Novels (choose 2 during the year)

  • Animal Farm by George Orwell
  • Jane Eyre by Charlotte Bronte
  • Lord of the Flies by William Golding
  • A Separate Peace by John Knowles
  • A Tale of Two Cities by Charles Dickens
  • To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee
  • The Yearling by Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings

Partial List of Skills Taught:

  • Describe characters based on speech, actions, or interactions with others
  • Demonstrate knowledge of authors, characters, and events of historically or culturally significant works of literature.
  • Identify character traits and motivations.
  • Identify and interpret allusions.
  • Identify conflict and resolution.
  • Identify and explain the use of irony.
  • Identify and interpret figurative language.
  • Identify and interpret imagery.
  • Identify and interpret sensory language.
  • Identify cause and effect relationships.
  • Identify climax.
  • Identify elements of a drama.
  • Identify elements of a short story.
  • Identify theme.
  • Identify point of view
  • Make inferences and draw conclusions.
  • Recognize the effect of setting or culture on a literary work.
  • Recognize use of language to convey mood.
  • Recognize author's attitude or tone.
  • Recognize author's purpose and devices used to accomplish it, including author's language, organization,and structure.
  • Recognize how point of view affects literature.


This strand builds on the skills introduced in Intermediate Composition courses. In this writing program, students continue to practice writing narrative, informative, and persuasive essays in various genres and increasingly focus on model essays from noteworthy authors. Some units use the literature lessons as a springboard and thereby reinforce the connection between reading for meaning and writing to communicate one's own ideas. Students learn the form and structure of a variety of essays they will encounter in their academic careers, including memoirs (narrative), literary essays, compare-and-contrast essays, long research papers and shorter research projects, descriptive writing, and arguments. In writing each essay, students go through a process of planning, organizing, and revising, and they learn to examine their own writing with a critical eye, paying attention to ideas, organization, structure, style, and correctness. Throughout the course, students write in response and use technology to draft, revise, and publish their work. Students hone effective presentation skills and incorporate multimedia elements into their work.


  • Analysis of a Memoir: Examining Mark Twain's "A Cub Pilot"
  • Planning a Memoir
  • Writing a Memoir I
  • Writing an Memoir II
  • Revising a Memoir
  • Proofreading and Publishing a Memoir

Literary Essay: Character

  • What Is Literary Essay About Character?
  • Planning a Literary Essay About Character
  • Focusing and Organizing a Literary Essay About Character
  • Writing a Literary Essay About Character
  • Revising a Literary Essay About Character
  • Proofreading and Publishing a Literary Essay About Character


  • What Is an Argument?
  • Recognizing Logical Fallacies and Emotional Appeals
  • Choosing a Topic and Gathering Information
  • Planning and Organizing the Argument
  • Writing an Argument
  • Revising an Argument
  • Proofreading and Publishing an Argument

Making Us See: Description

  • Seeing with the Mind's Eye I: Analysis of Excerpt from Hamlin Garland's Boy Life on the Prairie
  • Seeing with the Mind's Eye II: Analysis of Excerpt from Henry David Thoreau's Walden
  • Seeing with the Mind's Eye III: Analysis of an Excerpt from Annie Dillard's Pilgrim at Tinker Creek
  • Recognizing Descriptive Language
  • Planning a Descriptive Essay
  • Writing a Descriptive Essay
  • Polishing a Descriptive Essay

Research Paper

  • What Is a Research Paper?
  • Taking Notes I
  • Taking Notes II
  • Organizing the Information
  • Writing a Research Paper I
  • Writing a Research Paper II
  • Creating a Works Cited Page
  • Revising a Research Paper
  • Proofreading and Publishing a Research Paper
  • Revising
  • Bibliography
  • Proofreading
  • Publishing

Literary Essay: Theme

  • What Is a Literary Essay About Theme?
  • Planning a Literary Essay About Theme
  • Writing a Literary Essay About Theme
  • Revising a Literary Essay About Theme
  • Proofreading and Publishing a Literary Essay About Theme

Literary Essay: Compare and Contrast

  • What Is a Compare and Contrast Essay About Literature?
  • Planning a Compare and Contrast Essay About Literature
  • Organizing a Compare and Contrast Essay About Literature
  • Writing a Compare and Contrast Essay About Literature
  • Polishing a Compare and Contrast Essay About Literature

Great Speeches and Oratory

  • Reading, Listening to, and Analyzing a Speech I:The Gettysburg Address
  • Reading, Listening to, and Analyzing a Speech I:I Have a Dream
  • Planning a Speech
  • Writing a Speech
  • Revising a Speech
  • Practicing and Delivering a Speech


How can a modifier be misplaced or dangling? Is there a positive to appositives? What's a gerund? The Grammar,Usage, and Mechanics (GUM) course addresses these and many other topics, with reinforcement activities in sentence analysis, sentence structure, and proper punctuation.Students analyze syntax and diagram sentences in order to understand how words, phrases, and clauses function in relation to each other. Skills updates, frequent exercises,cumulative reviews, and regular practice help students absorb the rules so they can confidently apply them in their own writing. The Barrett Kendall Language Handbook provides exercises and a ready resource for grammar rules and conventions.

Sentences, Fragments, and Run-Ons

  • Sentences
  • Fragments
  • Run-Ons


  • Direct Objects and Indirect Objects
  • Predicate Nominatives and Predicate Adjectives


  • Prepositional Phrases
  • Misplaced Modifiers and Appositives

Verbals and Verbal Phrases

  • Participles and Participial Phrases
  • Gerund
  • Gerund Phrases
  • Infinitives and Infinitive Phrases
  • Misplaced and Dangling Modifiers


  • Independent and Subordinate Clauses
  • Adverb Clauses
  • Adjective Clauses
  • Functions of Relative Pronouns
  • Noun Clauses
  • Sentence Structure

Using Verbs

  • Principal Parts of Verbs
  • Verb Tense
  • Shift in Tense
  • Active and Passive Voice

Using Pronouns

  • Pronoun Case
  • Pronoun Problems
  • Pronouns in Comparison
  • Indefinite Pronoun Antecedents and Antecedent Problems

Subject and Verb Agreement

  • Agreement of Subjects and Verbs
  • Common Agreement Problems
  • Other Agreement Problems

Using Adjectives and Adverbs

  • Comparison of Adjectives and Adverbs

Capital Letters

  • Capitalization
  • More Capitalization

End Marks and Commas

  • End Marks
  • Commas That Separate
  • Comma That Enclose
  • More Commas That Enclose

Italics and Quotation Marks

  • Uses of Italics and Quotation Marks
  • Direct Quotations
  • Other Uses of Quotation Marks

Other Punctuation

  • Apostrophes
  • Semicolons
  • Colons and Hyphens
  • Dashes and Parentheses


Are you implacable or placid? Are you apathetic or empathic? Though these pairs of words are nearly opposite in their meanings, they are closely related and easily defined by students who know the Latin root,—"pacere" —(to please) and the Greek root pathos (suffering). K12's Vocabulary program uses the Vocabulary from Classical Roots program (from Educator's Publishing Service) to build knowledge of Greek and Latin words that form the roots of many English words. The purpose of the program is to help students unlock the meanings of words from classical roots, not necessarily to memorize lists of difficult or obscure vocabulary words. These polysyllabic words are those that frequently cause students to stumble and often appear on standardized tests. Throughout this program, students will define and use words with Greek and Latin roots, and use word origins and derivations to determine the meaning of new words, as they increase their own vocabularies and develop valuable test-taking skills.

The Person

  • Latin roots humanas, homo, vir, ego, genos, genus, generis
  • Greek roots anthropos; gyne, femina, autos, gens, gentis

Personal Relationships

  • Latin roots matrix, pater, frater, avunculus, familia, uxor, puer, morior, nascor
  • Greek roots pais, sum, esse, fui, futurum, thanatos


  • Latin roots amo, amicus, odium, pax, cupio, placere, placare
  • Greek roots philos, phileo, phobos, pathos, miso, dys

Creature Comforts

  • Latin roots domus, dominus, dormio, somnus, lavare, vestis, coquere, vorare, melis, sal, bibere, potare, ludere

The Head

  • Latin roots caput, cerebrum, facies, frons, oris, oratum, dens, gurges
  • Greek roots odon

The Body

  • Latin roots caro, collum, corpus, cor, os, dorsum, nervus, sanguis, sedeo
  • Greek roots derm, gaster

The Hands

  • Latin roots manus, dextra, digitus, flecto, rapio, plico, prehendo, pes, gradior, ambulo, calcitro, sto, stio, sisto
  • Greek root podos
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Number of Lessons and Scheduling

Total Lessons: 120

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K12 Scope & Sequence documents for each course include:

  • Course Overview (as seen above)
  • Course Outline
  • Lesson Time and Scheduling