MTH306: Algebra II

This list is representative of the materials provided or used in this course. Keep in mind that the actual materials used may vary, depending on the school in which you are enrolled, and whether you are taking the course as Independent Study.

For a complete list of the materials to be used in this course by your enrolled student, please visit MyInfo. All lists are subject to change at any time.

Scope & Sequence : Scope & Sequence documents describe what is covered in a course (the scope) and also the order in which topics are covered (the sequence). These documents list instructional objectives and skills to be mastered. K12 Scope & Sequence documents for each course include:

Course Overview

Students are able to gain credit if they have previously completed this course but did not successfully earn credit. For each unit, students take a diagnostic test that assesses their current knowledge of fundamental content. The results of these tests help students create individualized study plans.

This course builds upon algebraic concepts covered in Algebra I. Students solve open-ended problems and learn to think critically. Topics include conic sections; functions and their graphs; quadratic functions; inverse functions; and advanced polynomial functions. Students review rational, radical, exponential, and logarithmic functions; sequences and series; and data analysis.

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Course Length

Two Semesters

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Student completed the course or its equivalent, but did not receive credit; teacher/school counselor recommendation required.

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Course Outline


Unit 1: Numbers, Expressions, and Equations

In this unit, students review the order of operations, set definitions, properties of the real number system, and other symbols and terminology. Various strategies for solving linear and absolute value equations are introduced, as are strategies for using formulas to solve real-world applications.

  • Semester Introduction
  • Foundations for Unit 1
  • Sets of Numbers
  • Number Lines and Absolute Value
  • Number Properties
  • Evaluating Expressions
  • Solving Equations
  • Solving Absolute Value Equations
  • Applications: Formulas

Unit 2: Linear Equations and Systems

Representations and applications of linear relationships are the focus of this unit. Students interpret and create graphs, tables, and equations that represent linear relationships. In addition to simple linear equations, students also use systems of linear equations to solve real-world problems.

  • Foundations for Unit 2
  • Graphs of Lines
  • Forms of Linear Equations
  • Writing Equations of Lines
  • Applications: Linear Equations
  • Systems of Linear Equations
  • Applications: Linear Systems

Unit 3: Functions

Students explore real-world situations regarding input and output, learn how to graph equations, and differentiate between functions and relations. Functions that are covered include some that are continuous, discontinuous, and discrete-valued. Step functions such as the least and greatest integer functions are introduced. Students learn to estimate and calculate domains and ranges of functions and to compose complicated functions from simpler ones. Students learn to express situations in function notation, calculate domains and ranges, and write sums, differences, products, quotients, and compositions of functions.

  • Foundations for Unit 3
  • Function Basics
  • Function Equations
  • Absolute Value Functions
  • Piecewise Functions
  • Step Functions
  • Function Operations
  • Function Inverses

Unit 4: Inequalities

In this unit, students solve and graph linear inequalities in one variable including conjunctions, disjunctions, and absolute value inequalities. Students also solve and graph inequalities in two variables and systems of inequalities in two variables.

  • Foundations for Unit 4
  • Inequalities in One Variable
  • Compound Inequalities
  • Absolute Value Inequalities
  • Inequalities in Two Variables
  • Systems of Linear Inequalities

Unit 5: Polynomials and Power Functions

Students learn to identify, evaluate, graph, and write polynomial functions. They review adding, subtracting, and multiplying polynomials as well as algebraic factoring patterns. Students use these patterns and the zero product property to solve polynomial equations. Additionally, students graph power functions and identify the end behavior of various members of the power function graph family.

  • Foundations for Unit 5
  • Working with Polynomials
  • Multiplying Polynomials
  • Factoring Patterns
  • Solving Polynomial Equations
  • Power Functions

Unit 6: Rational Equations

Students learn to add, subtract, multiply, and divide rational expressions. Students learn to simplify compound fractions and solve rational equations. They also explore graphs and end behavior of rational functions including asymptotes and zeros.

  • Foundations for Unit 6
  • Dividing Monomials and Polynomials
  • Operations with Rational Expressions
  • Compound Fractions
  • Solving Rational Equations
  • Reciprocal Power Functions
  • Graphing Rational Functions

Unit 7: Radicals and Complex Numbers

Students learn to identify, add, subtract, multiply, and divide radicals, and to factor out perfect squares. Students solve real world problems involving applications of radical equations and convert between rational exponent and radical form of an expression. They learn to identify, graph, find the modulus of, add, subtract, multiply, and divide imaginary and complex numbers.

  • Foundations for Unit 7
  • Simplifying Radical Expressions
  • Fractional Exponents and Higher Roots
  • Solving Radical Equations
  • Imaginary Numbers
  • Complex Numbers

Unit 8: Quadratic Functions

Students learn how to graph quadratic functions and identify the equations of quadratic functions when given a graph. Students also use the zero product property, completing the square, and the quadratic formula to solve quadratic equations. They explore the Quadratic Formula and how factors of quadratic polynomials relate to x-intercepts of graphs of quadratic functions. Applications include projectile motion, geometry, and other areas.

  • Foundations for Unit 8
  • Graphing Quadratic Functions
  • Properties of Quadratic Functions
  • Solving Quadratic Equations
  • Applications: Quadratic Functions

Unit 9: Semester Review and Test

  • Semester Review
  • Semester Test


Unit 1: Solving and Graphing Polynomials

Students learn polynomial long division and the technique of synthetic division to divide polynomials. Additionally, they learn to apply the remainder theorem and use the factor and rational roots theorems to factor polynomials over the real and complex numbers. Uses of graphs and technology for factoring polynomials and solving polynomial equations are also covered.

  • Semester Introduction
  • Foundations for Unit 1
  • Polynomial Long Division
  • Synthetic Division
  • The Polynomial Remainder Theorem
  • Factors and Rational Roots
  • Graphing Polynomials
  • Factoring Polynomials Completely

Unit 2: Exponents and Logarithms

Students discover how exponential functions can be used to describe situations in the real world, such as exponential decay and growth. They define the logarithmic function in terms of its relationship with the exponential function and graph both exponential and logarithmic functions. Students learn to apply multiplication and division laws of exponents to exponential and logarithmic expressions and equations.

  • Foundations for Unit 2
  • Exponential Expressions and Equations
  • Graphing Exponential Functions
  • Applications: Growth and Decay
  • Logarithms
  • Using Logs to Solve Exponential Equations
  • Solving Logarithmic Equations
  • Graphing Logarithmic Functions
  • Applications: Logarithms

Unit 3: Sequences and Series

Students explore arithmetic and geometric sequences, learning the concept of series as a sum of terms in a sequence and finding sums of finite arithmetic and geometric series. Students also use and interpret sigma notation to describe sums. Throughout the unit, students use sequences and series to solve several types of real-world problems and use spreadsheets to calculate terms of sequences and series.

  • Foundations for Unit 3
  • Sequences and Patterns
  • Arithmetic Sequences
  • Geometric Sequences
  • Applications: Sequences
  • Series and Sigma Notation
  • Arithmetic Series
  • Geometric Series
  • Applications: Series
  • Technology: Sequences and Series

Unit 4: Counting and Probability

Students review counting principles including identifying and calculating permutations and combinations. They calculate probabilities of simple, dependent, independent, and binomial events. They also use probability to make predictions and relate the binomial theorem to Pascal's triangle.

  • Foundations for Unit 4
  • Counting Principles
  • Permutations and Factorials
  • Combinations
  • Basic Probability
  • Probability with and Without Replacement
  • Independent and Dependent Events
  • Mutually Exclusive Events
  • Binomial probability
  • Making Predictions

Unit 5: Statistics

Students learn about the measures of center—mode, median, and mean—and the measures of spread—range, variance, and standard deviation. They learn how to produce and interpret bar, box-and-whisker, and scatter plots. Students explore common sampling techniques and learn how to use the properties of normal distributions to compare values.

  • Foundations for Unit 5
  • Measures of Center
  • Variability
  • Samples
  • Graphs of Univariate Data
  • Frequency Distributions
  • The Normal Distribution
  • Lines of Best Fit

Unit 6: Vectors and Matrices

In this unit, students learn how to add, subtract, multiply, and determinants of matrices. Students also use matrices to solve systems of equations, transform figures, and solve real-world problems.

  • Foundations for Unit 6
  • Matrices and Vectors
  • Operations with Matrices
  • Matrix Multiplication
  • Transforming Points and Figures
  • Determinants and Cramer's Rule

Unit 7: Conic Sections

Students learn about conic sections that are points or lines and curved conic sections, including circles, ellipses, hyperbolas, and parabolas. They learn how to graph conic sections, how to use algebraic reasoning to create equations of conics when given descriptions or graphs, and how to solve real-world problems.

  • Foundations for Unit 7
  • Introduction to Conic Sections
  • Circles
  • Ellipses
  • Hyperbolas
  • Parabolas

Unit 8: Semester Review and Test

  • Semester Review
  • Semester Test
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Lesson Scheduling

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K12 Scope & Sequence documents for each course include:

  • Course Overview (as seen above)
  • Course Outline
  • Lesson Time and Scheduling